The inflammation of the gums due to excessive deposition of dental plaque is known as gingivitis. It is a result of bacterial infestation, which is caused due to poor dental hygiene and improper brushing techniques. The deposited of dental plaque is one of the major causes of gingivitis is the deposition of plaque over the enamel that causes the teeth to appear yellow in color. Regular brushing, flossing, and rinsing of the mouth prevent excessive bacterial growth in the mouth.

However, when a person fails to follow these oral hygiene practices on a regular basis, bacteria get the chance to multiply their army and start forming a thick film over the teeth, which may extend to the gums with time.It is one of the earliest stages of periodontitis or gum disease and is one of the main causes of bad breath among children and adults.


Apart from poor dental hygiene, gingivitis can also be caused by several other reasons, as listed below:

  • Hormonal changes during pregnancy

During pregnancy, the body increases the production of human chorionic gonadotropin, which stimulates the excessive secretion of progesterone to maintain the endometrial lining of the uterus. The fluctuation in the secretions of estrogen and progesterone is one of the main reasons behind gingivitis in pregnant women. Moreover, pregnant women are known tosuffer from morning sickness, which can cause vomiting at any time of the day. This can lead to bacterial build-up inside the mouth.

  • Smoking

Tobacco and its products interfere with the normal functioning of gum tissues, which makes gums more susceptible to periodontitis and gingivitis.Smoking weakens the attachment of teeth to the gum tissues, which over a period of time, makes them more prone to wounds.

  • Dehydration

The major components of saliva include water and electrolytes, which lubricates the mouth and prevents bacterial infestation. When the body doesn’t get enough hydration, it causes less secretion of saliva by the salivary gland. A dry mouth is more susceptible to gum infections. People on heavy medications may also suffer from gingivitis, as certain medicines tend to interfere with salivary production leading to a dry mouth.

  • Nutritional deficiencies

Gingivitis can also be caused due to a deficiency of Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, in the body. Less intake of fresh fruits and vegetables containing Vitamin C can lead to the formation of ulcers in gum tissues. 

  • Crooked Teeth

Misaligned teeth serve as an invitation for bacterial infections. Overlapped or crooked teeth have small spaces between them, which are not easy to clean by simply brushing and flossing. These tiny spaces cause bacterial build-up in the mouth leading to several gum diseases. 


The excessive intake of fast food items, nutritional deficiencies, poor oral care, and medicinal commitments form the major causes of gingivitis. It is important to recognize gum diseases in their earlier stages, as excessive bacterial infection may cause the loss of the tooth. Some of the symptoms of gingivitis are:

  • Dry mouth or less salivary secretion
  • Pain or swelling in the gums
  • Gums that are soft and patchy
  • Discomfort in chewing
  • Increased sensitivity of the teeth
  • Bad breath that doesn’t go away from brushing, flossing, and rinsing the mouth


Thankfully, gum diseases such as periodontitis and gingivitis are reversible and can be treated by proper oral care. Some common treatment methods to incorporate intoyour life are:

  • Eating fresh fruits and vegetables
  • Drinking at least 2.5 liters of water every day
  • Quit smoking
  • Regular brushing, flossing, and rinsing of the mouth
  • Using anti-cavity toothpaste
  • Reduce the intake of carbonated drinks
  • Getting braces for proper teeth alignment
  • Regular visits to the dentist

Maria Mosher

All you need to know about REGAINE

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